Bees Make Propolis From Various Plant Buds And Saps
Totarol is another diterpene in propolis with significant antibacterial activity. It has been shown to have high minimal inhibitory concentrations against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. It has been demonstrated that alcoholic extracts of Propolis exhibit synergism with antibiotics in the treatment of Salmonella typhi, which is probably due to its effect on ribosome inhibition.
In the last few years, there has been an increased interest in propolis for its antitumor properties. It has been shown that Propolis extracts and constituents inhibit cancer cell growth and induce apoptosis via multiple pathways. These include modulating cellular signals, altering the expression of genes involved in cell cycle regulation and inducing autophagy. Another recent research has shown that propolis prevents oxidative damage to brain tissues in mice with Alzheimer’s disease, by maintaining adequate glutathione levels and SOD activity. It has also prevented oxidative damage to heart mitochondria in mice with permanent ischemia and neuronal cell death induced by radiation.
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